Sports have always been dogged by report upon report of iconic athletes being busted for consuming performance-enhancing drugs. These substances are notorious for temporarily improving the capabilities of the person who consumes them, and is a sign of outright cheating. In sports circles, this practice is known as ‘doping’.
Mixed martial arts is a particular scene where doping is notoriously prevalent. With the often rigorous training requirements, the extreme level of physical exertion MMA fighters have to endure, and the grueling experience of international travel, these athletes may be tempted to take steps to stay ahead of the competition. This goes double for fighters signed to prestigious MMA brands like the Ultimate Fighting Championship. On the flipside, some of these supposed instances of doping are caused by outlying factors outside of the sport itself, or are fabricated by critics and opponents.
On that note, here are five high-profile doping cases involving high-profile UFC fighters.
- Brock Lesnar: banned for fighting in the UFC for one year after testing positive for anti-estrogen drugs in his July 2016 bout with Mark Hunt. Has since submitted to another drug test in 2018 to be reinstated to fight in the octagon. In the meantime, he has returned to professional wrestling and is a current belt-holder.
- Chael Sonnen: suspended for a whopping three consecutive times after testing positive for excessive testosterone consumption during his match with, and eventual loss to, Anderson Silva in 2010. Has since moved on to Bellator MMA and has returned to fighting.
- Josh Barnett: notoriously suspended and stripped of his freshly-won heavyweight title in 2002 after testing positive to doping both before and after the fight. After forays into other promotions as well as other doping-related issues, Barnett returned to the UFC but opted to leave in 2018 citing his distrust of the US Anti-Doping Agency.
- Nick Diaz: tested positive for marijuana use in 2007 during his fight with Gomi Takanori. He received a similar ruling five years later, but a more harsh one-year suspension. After losing his return fight in 2013, he has remained in hiatus to this day.
- Wanderlei Silva: failed to submit to tests in 2014 and was originally slapped with a lifetime fighting ban by the Nevada Athletic Commission, but received a relatively lighter three-year ban thanks to drug crimes attorney Ross Goodman’s vigorous defense. Has returned to fighting and is currently signed to Bellator.
In the United States, there are crimes that are too severe or carry more weight than what can be covered by most state laws. These are classified as federal crimes, and can only be prosecuted under United States law. These kinds are often extremely severe, emotionally or financially damaging, or carries a national security risk. Acts committed on federal property (like the local branch of a federal agency) are automatically marked as federal crimes.
Federal law defines a whole list of these severe offenses, but a few of them stand out because of their severity. Here is a selection of major federal crimes in the US.
- Drug crimes: large-scale interstate manufacture and distribution of illicit drugs, cross-border proliferation of said drugs, and violent crimes committed in connection to illegal drug trade (as in a cartel war) all fall under federal jurisdiction.
- Mail fraud: obtaining money or property, or distributing counterfeit material, through the United States Postal Service contributes a federal crime
- Wire fraud: like mail fraud, but through electronic data transfers.
- Violent crime: can escalate to a federal level if the number of victims involved is high or the threat level has escalated to what can be covered by local law enforcement.
- Bank fraud: escalates to a federal level if the operation has gone large-scale or the crime has been committed in multiple states.
- Property crimes: mostly if federal property is concerned. Vandalism, theft, trespassing and arson are commonly prosecuted at the federal level in this situation.
- Immigration crimes: illegal entry of and overstaying by foreign individuals fall under federal jurisdiction.
- Firearms crimes: involves open- or conceal-carrying a firearm in areas that are federally mandated to be gun-free, like schools, places of worship, and airports. Also involves illegal possession of firearms if the stash is substantial, and gun modifications that break federal laws.
- Sex crimes: large-scale operations and cases involving several victims can b elevated to a federal court.
- White collar crimes: larger-scale and organized white-collar crimes fall under federal jurisdiction.
- Conspiracy and unlawful manipulation: conspiring to destabilize the government as a private individual, or an elected official conspiring to do the same or unlawfully influence the employment of certain individuals in government, all fall under federal law.
- Cross-state kidnappings
- Organized and cybercrime
Being the home state of what is arguably the gambling and casino capital of the world, Nevada understands that with high stakes come the equally high chances of fraud, theft, and unpaid debts. As such, Nevada’s statutes on gambling law are comprehensive and far-reaching, aimed at regulating at one of the state’s most lucrative sources of income. Since the inception of legalized gambling with the Wide Open Gambling Bill in 1931, state and local laws continue to evolve to keep a strict oversight of gambling in Nevada. Highlights of these laws include:
- Both traditional and online gambling are permitted, although stricter measures are enforced for online gambling
- Cheating is categorized as a Class B felony and can equate to a long jail time and hefty fees
- Failure to pay the casino marker can be a misdemeanor for values below $950 and a Class D felony for anything above that
- Fraud is considered as equal to, if not greater than, cheating as far as gambling laws are concerned, and a person of accused of gambling fraud can expect even more stringent penalties if they are convicted
Knowing the key pointers of Nevada gambling laws will help you remember what not or not to do when playing in any casino in the state. Play smart, play safe, and keep the rules in mind.
In general, sexual assault is often considered the realm of older offenders, especially when juveniles are involved. However in recent years, there has been a growing trend of accused and convicted juvenile sexual offenders across the country. Thanks in part to the passing of the Adam Walsh Act in 2006, states have moved to update their sexual assault laws to better deter such crimes in the future, whatever the age of the perpetrator may be. Nevada’s own revisions based on the Act took its first steps only in 2017.
How does Nevada’s law on Juvenile Sex Offenders work?
State statutes describe a juvenile sexual offender as anyone who is at 15 years and below who committed a sexual assault act on another person within the same age range. Sexual crimes include the full range of crimes that adults can commit, including sexual assault, battery with sexual assault, indecent exposure, pornographic offense, open and gross lewdness, and lewdness with another child.
Unlike their adult counterparts, however, juvenile sexual offenders do not receive the full brunt of penalties for their crimes. While they may still be required to register into a sexual offender database, they often face such penalties as community service, driving license suspensions, home supervision or detention in a youth facility. Severe cases, however, may lead for the prosecution to request a full sexual assault trial reserved for adults; the juvenile faces adult penalties like extended incarceration in a prison and hefty fines.
A person’s driving license is proof that they have competent knowledge, not just of proper and safe driving, but of the rules of the road. Having a license means the driver understands their duty in keeping the highways safe whenever they’re out on a drive. Failure to do so can result in sanctions which can involve either the revocation or the suspension of a person’s driving license. A person may have been drunk driving, overspeeding, driving recklessly, or in the worst case, may have caused injury or death due to vehicular negligence.
Yet, what is a difference between a revocation and a suspension of a license?
Suspension of a license is merely the temporary withholding permission for someone to drive a motor vehicle. They retain their license, but for the duration of the suspension it will not be recognized as valid. License suspension can be definite (set within a prescribed period of time that must be observed) or indefinite (the license can be reinstated if and when the driver pays fines or appears in court).
Revocation of a license involves not only prohibiting a person from operating a motor vehicle for a prescribed amount of time, but voiding that person’s license as part of his/her penalties, requiring him/her to re-apply for one or outright barring him/her from applying for a license ever again. Revocation is invoked for severe cases (such as reckless driving leading to injury or death) or repeat offenses (such as multiple cases of DUI).